Repetition is the mother of wisdom, so at the beginning of this year’s paragliding season, we will remember in what space we move with our glider.
When a person unknowing the beauty of paragliding looks up at the sky, he probably thinks he doesn’t care who he flies. But the opposite is true. We have divided the airspace into several categories that have different restrictions or even bans.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has defined a total of 7 types of airspace, which we will discuss in this article.
CTA – control area
Controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified height above the ground.
TMA – terminal control area
A control area, normally established where air traffic service routes converge near one or more major airports.
CTR – control zone
Controlled airspace, extending from the ground surface to a specified height
TSA – temporaty segregated area
A defined part of airspace, normally under the jurisdiction of one aviation component, which by mutual agreement is temporarily reserved for the exclusive use of another aviation component and through which no other traffic will be permitted to pass.
TRA – temporary reserved area
A defined part of the airspace, normally under the authority of one component of the aviation, which, by mutual agreement, is temporarily reserved for specific use by another component of the aviation and through which other operations may fly under ATC clearance.
ATZ – aerodrome traffic zone
Airspace of specified dimensions, which serves to protect airport traffic.
AIP – laeronautical information publication
A publication issued by a governmental authority containing aeronautical information needed for air navigation in a country. As of January 1, 2008, the AIP of the Czech Republic is freely accessible on the Air Traffic Control of the Czech Republic website.
VFR – visual flight rules
Method of flight control, enabling flight in suitable meteorological conditions. In such a flight, the pilot controls and navigates the aircraft according to the view from the cabin.
IFR – instrument flight rules
A method of flight management that allows flight even in worsening weather conditions when the weather does not allow VFR flight. During such a flight, the pilot controls the aircraft on the basis of data from the instruments.
NOTAM – notice to arimen
The NOTAM is issued as a warning of danger or to inform pilots of changes in air traffic. Their duration may be limited to a few hours / days.
AGL – above ground level
When taking off, approaching and landing, and flying below the altitude, the distance from the ground to the pilot is important. Therefore, he sets the altitude pressure QNH on the altimeter, which is handed over to the ATC unit. For activities around the airport. Regional QNH is used for flights between airports.
And let’s see what spaces we have in the Czech Republic.
The part of the airspace from the ground in which the flight must not take place. These spaces can be found here, for example, above the Prague Castle or the Temelín Nuclear Power Station.
Airspace of defined dimensions, above land or territorial waters of a State in which the aircraft is restricted in accordance with established conditions. This space can be flown, but only if certain conditions are met. These spaces can be found above National Parks.
Airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of an aircraft may take place at a particular time. Flying through this area is not prohibited, but is not recommended. In these areas, for example, ammunition is disposed of, or there are gas reservoirs. These spaces can be found in Dolní Dunajovice, where the largest gas reservoir in the Czech Republic is located.
It ranges from ground to 300 m AGL outside CTR controlled airports. In addition to the above conditions, VMC minima are set – min. visibility 1500 m (helicopters 800 m), maintaining the ratio of speed and visibility 100: 1 (fly max. 100 km / h in flight visibility of 1 km), outside the cloud in the visibility of the ground.
It ranges from 300 m AGL to FL 95 outside CTR and TMA controlled airports. Minima VMC – min. visibility 5 km, distance from clouds 300 m vertically and 1.5 km horizontally.
It ranges from FL 95 to FL 660 inclusive, TMA Prague outside the TMA of other controlled airports. Minima VMC are the same as in class E, from FL 100 above the required visibility rises to 8 km.